Before the rise of Miriam Makeba, very few Europeans or Americans had ever heard of African musicians. Her release of Lovely Lies in 1956 became the first South African record to chart on the Billboard Top 100. Makeba became a protégé of Harry Belafonte and she subsequently performed for Miles Davis and Duke Ellington from her new home in New York. In 1960, Makeba attempted to return to South Africa for her mother’s funeral but found that her passport had been cancelled by the government. Becoming active in both the civil rights movement in the United States and protests against apartheid, Makeba achieved world-wide prominence. In 1965, she became the first African recording artist to win a Grammy Award. After marrying Black Panther leader Stokely Carmichael, however, the singer alienated much of her American audience and the couple relocated to Guinea. Musician, activist, humanist, and prodigious talent, Makeba has been credited with being the first to bring international attention to the music of Africa.